Institutional Links

International Maritime Organization (IMO):

International labour Organisation (ILO)

International Transport Workers’ Federation (ITF)

Human Rights Watch:

Amnesty International:

No Peace Without Justice:

UN Oceans and Law of the Sea:

UN High Commissioner for Refugees:

Business and Human Rights Resource Centre (BHRRC):

British Maritime Law Association:

Comité Maritime International:

International Foundation for the Law of the Sea:

100 Series Rules for the Use of Force:

UNICEF Convention on the Rights of the Child:

Children’s Rights and Business Principles:

ISO 2600 Social Responsibility:

ISO and social responsibility:

ICRC IHL database:

ICRC Treaties and States Parties to such Treaties database:

Human Rights in the Gulf Region

Useful links on Institutes and Academic Papers:

Slavery at Sea

International Instruments

Agreement on port state measures to prevent, deter and eliminate illegal, unreported and unregulated fishing, by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (2009),

ILO Maritime Labour Convention, 2006 (Entry into force: 20 Aug 2013; )

ILO Forced Labour Convention, 1930 (No. 29)

ILO Abolition of Forced Labour Convention, 1957 (No. 105)

ILO Minimum Age Convention, 1973 (No. 138)

ILO Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, 1999 (No. 182)

Council of Europe, European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms, as amended by Protocols Nos. 11 and 14, 4 November 1950, ETS 5, Article 4(1)available at:

www. Parliament. Uk Bill Documents – Modern Slavery (Victim Support) Bill [HL] 2017-19

UN General Assembly, International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, 16 December 1966, United Nations, Treaty Series, vol. 999, p. 171, available at:

UN General Assembly, Universal Declaration of Human Rights, 10 December 1948, 217 A (III)



Slavery Referral texts and other publications

The World Bank, Documents and Reports, Human Trafficking, Modern Slavery, and Economic Exploitation (English) (2019)

Mutaqin, Zezen. (2018). Modern-day Slavery at Sea: Human Trafficking in the Thai Fishing Industry. Journal of East Asia and International Law. 11. 75-76. 10.14330/jeail.2018.11.1.04.

Greenpeace guidance for the seafood industry and government, ‘Slavery and Labour Abuse in the Fishing Sector’ (2014)

UK Government, ‘Explanatory Notes – Modern Slavery Act 2015’

ILO, ‘Final report “ILO expert workshop on Measuring Modern Slavery” ‘ (2015)–en/index.htm

ILO, ‘Forced and compulsory labour in international human rights law’ (2015)–en/index.htm 

Anti- Slavery, What is Modern Slavery 1)


UNCHR, Slavery Convention (1927) in Accordance with Aricle 12

ILO, ‘Report: Methodology of the Global Estimates of Modern Slavery: Forced Labour and Forced Marriage (2017)–en/index.htm

The Global Slavery Index, ‘Modern Slavery: A hidden Everyday Problem’

Human Rights Watch, ‘Australia Starts Tackling Modern Slavery’’ (2019)

Stoyanova V, Human Trafficking and Slavery Reconsidered: Conceptual Limits and States’ Positive Obligations in European Law(Cambridge University Press 2017)

Briefing Paper of the European Parliament and the Directorate-General for External Policies of the Union:

ILO report “Caught at sea: Forced labour and trafficking in fisheries”–en/index.htm

Sold to the Sea: Human Trafficking in Thailand’s Fishing Industry (EJF film), ISBN 978-1-904523-29-1, publication date: 29. May 2013

Slavery at Sea: The Continued Plight of Trafficked Migrants in Thailand’s Fishing Industry (EJF film), ISBN 978-1-904523-34-5, publication date: 4 May 2014

An introduction to transnational criminal law / Neil Boister, Oxford, U.K.: Oxford University Press, 2012, ISBN: 978-0-19-163201-3

The Slavery Conventions : the travaux préparatoires of the 1926 League of Nations convention and the 1956 United Nations convention / by Jean Allain, Boston : Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, c2008,



Human Trafficking International Instruments

The United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime (UNTOC) (Palermo Convention)

The United Nations protocol to prevent, suppress and punish trafficking in persons, especially women and children, supplementing the united nations convention against transnational organized crime

Protocol against the Smuggling of Migrants by Land, Sea and Air

UN: Supplementary Convention on the Abolition of Slavery, entered into force in 1957

ILO Maritime Labour Convention, 2006 (Entry into force: 20 Aug 2013)

ILO Forced Labour Convention, 1930 (No. 29)

ILO Abolition of Forced Labour Convention, 1957 (No. 105)

ILO Minimum Age Convention, 1973 (No. 138)

ILO Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, 1999 (No. 182)

Council of EuropeConvention on Action against Trafficking in Human Beings(CETS No. 197)

European Convention on Human Rights

Council Dierective 2004/81/EC

EU Directive 2011/36/EU, (Directive on preventing and combating trafficking in human beings)

In 2003 the OSCE established an anti-trafficking mechanism aimed at raising public awareness of the problem and building the political will within participating States to tackle it effectively. The OSCE actions against human trafficking are coordinated by the Office of the Special Representative for Combating the Traffic of Human Beings


Referral texts and other publications

UNODC Issue Paper: Smuggling of Migrants by Sea (2011)

UNODC: transnational organized crime in the fishing industry

UNODC: Global report on trafficking in persons (2012)

UNODC: Compendium on best practices on human trafficking by law enforcement agencies:

UNODC: Countering Trafficking in Persons in Conflict Situation (2018):

UNODC: The International Legal Definition of Trafficking in Persons: Consolidation of research findings and reflection on issues raised (2018)

UNODC: Human trafficking Knowledge Portal: Case Law Database  


Migrants and Refugees International instruments

The 1951 United NationsConvention Relating to the Status of Refugees; also referred to as the Geneva

The 1967 Protocol relating to the Status of Refugees

The 1969 OAU Convention Governingthe Specific Aspects of Refugee Problems in Africa

EU regulation No 604/2013 (Dublin Regulation III)

EU regulation No 1052/2013, establishing the European
Border Surveillance System (Eurosur)

IMO Resolution A.920(22)

Resolution MSC.153(78), adoption of amendments to SOLAS

Resolution MSC.155(78), adoption of amendments to SAR

MSC Guidelines on the treatment of persons rescued at sea


Referral texts and other publications

IOM, ‘World Migration Report 2018’. (2018

European Migrant Crisis: Mediterranean Crossings deadlier than Ever- UNCHR

Latest Issues- The Refugee Brief (1 March 2019)

Deflagging of Refugee Rescue Ship ‘a Dark Moment for Europe’ (12 February 2019)

Refugee Crisis: 2016 on Course to Be Deadliest Year on Record as Thousands of Asylum Seekers Drown in Mediterranean (30 July 2016)

The 10 Best Articles on Refugees and Migration 25/2016 (28 June 2016)

Year in Review: The Refugee Crisis in 2016 (29 December 2016)

EU Migrant Crisis: Facts and Figures (30 June 2017)

The 10 Best Articles on Refugees and Migration1/2017 (10 January 2017)

Europe’s Migrant Crisis isn’t Going Away, but it is Changing (29 August 2017)

Top 20 Facts about Refugees and People Seeking Asylum (2018)

Syrian Refugees: Four Million People Forced to Flee as Crisis Deepens (9 July 2015)

Refugee and Migrant Crisis in Europe: Children on the Move September 2015-December 2016 (23 September 2015)

Over One Million Migrants and Refugees have Reached Europe this Year, Says IOM (22 December 2015)

Europe’s Refugee and Migrant Crisis in 2016. In numbers (5 December 2016)

Spain’s Immigration Problem: Out of Which Comes a Story About Princesa (17 August 2014):

Spain Suspects Morocco Allowed a Brief Flood of Migrants (15 August 2014):

Italy: EU Must Take Over Migrant Boat Rescues (15 August 2014):

By Sea And By Ladder, Africans Seek Entry to Spain (14 Aug 2014):

Greece Seeks EC Influence to Tackle Surge in Illegal Migrants (14 August 2014):

Record Number of Migrants Arriving in Italy and Spain as Madrid Blames Morocco (13 August 2014):

Frontex Presses On With Aerial Surveillance Projects (12 August 2014):

Migrants Head For Spain In Boats (12 August 2014):

Boat Migrant Arrivals to Italy Up 500 Percent in 2014 (12 August 2014):

Conditions for Asylum Seekers Worsen in Libya (7 August 2014):

Concern Mounts For Refugees and Asylum Seekers in Libya (5 August 2014):

Migration and Public Health in Europe (4 August 2014):

Pressure on Greece’s Border With Turkey Mounts As More Refugees Flee Middle East (2 August 2014):

Eritrean Migrants Risk Detentions and Beatings in Libya for a Life in Europe (1 August 2014):

EU Must ‘Take Urgent Action’ To Ensure Safety Of Refugees (31 July 2014):

People Before Borders (29 July 2014):

The Missed Opportunity of the “Ypres Guidelines” of the European Council Regarding Immigration and Asylum (29 July 2014):

Stopping the Wave of Asylum Seekers Means Fixing Libya (29 July 2014):

Prioritising Border Control Over Human Lives: Violations Of The Rights Of Migrants and Refugees At Sea (28 July 2014):

Better Management of Dead and Missing Migrants Needed In Europe (28 July 2014):

First Privately Funded Refugee Rescue Operation Sets Sale From Malta in August (28 July 2014):

Tracing Dead Migrants in Europe (28 July 2014):

Refugees Must Have Safe Access To Europe (26 July 2014):

Urgent EU Action Needed to End Refugee and Migrant Deaths at Sea, says UNHCR (25 July 2014):

Mediterranean Boat People Numbers Soar This Year (24 July 2014):

UNHCR Calls For Urgent European Action to End Refugee and Migrant Deaths at Sea (24 July 2014):

EU Grapples With Smugglers As People Fleeing Conflict Face Torture (23 July 2014):

EU Solidarity For Rescue-At-Sea and Protection of Refugees and Migrants (22 July 2014):

Boldrini Wants Asylum Requests Allowed in Transit Countries (22 July 2014):

19 Migrants Suffocate On Boat to Italy (19 July 2014):

Bulgaria Under Fire Over Anti-Refugee Border Fence (17 July 2014):

Lives at the Southern Borders (17 July 2014):

Italy Rescues More Than 1700 Boat Migrants In Three Days (16 July 2014):

Lost at Sea (16 July 2014):

Europe’s Migration Emergency (14 July 2014):

No One Deserves To Die At Sea (13 July 2014):

Maiziere: EU Must Help Refugees At The Source (11 July 2014):

Portugal Adopts New Asylum Legislation Transposing EU Asylum Directives (11 July 2014):

Italy In Talks With EU To Share Responsibility For Migrants (9 July 2014):

The Human Cost of the Fortress of Europe (9 July 2014):

EU Migration Policies Put Lives and Rights at Risk (9 July 2014):

Refugees Shouldn’t Be Italy’s Burden Alone (8 July 2014):

Latest Boat Tragedy Off Libya Adds To Rising Death Toll In Mediterranean (8 July 2014):

Growing Refugee Numbers Call For EU Solidarity (8 July 2014):

‘Open Legal Routes to Refugees’: Malmstrom (8 July 2014):

81 Migrants Reported Dead Or Missing On Sea Route To Italy (3 July 2014):

The Effect Of Negative Labelling – Why Are We Still Talking About ‘Migrants’? (1 July 2014):

Strengthening EU Border Security Won’t Stop the Deaths of Migrants in the Mediterranean (1 July 2014):

Does EU Have Political Will to Stop Deaths in the Mediterranean Sea? (1 July 2014):

Whose Sea? Mare Nostrum and the Politics of Migration in the Med (30 June 2014):

Refugees Or Migrants? (27 June 2014):

New EU Rules on Maritime Surveillance: Will They Stop the Deaths and Push-Backs in the Mediterranean? (27 June 2014):

Europe and the Refugees (21 June 2014):

Guards Drive Back African Migrants at Morocco-Spain Border (14 June 2014):

EU Must Establish Common ‘Safe’ and ‘Regular’ Migration Paths (13 June 2014):

Italy: Refugees ‘Left Stranded and Starving’ in Rome and Milan (11 June 2014):

Why Figures Matter (10 June 2014):

The ‘Left-To-Die Boat’: Actions and Reactions (9 June 2014):

US Amphibious Assault Ship Rescues Illegal Migrants in Mediterranean, Brings More Problems For Beleaguered Malta (8 June 2014):

EU Home Affairs Ministers Urged to Open Legal Channels For Refugees and Migrants (6 June 2014):

Italy’s Forgotten Refugees (5 June 2014):

Holding Centres Will Not Stop Migrants Risking Their Lives Off Europe’s Shores (4 June 2014):

UN Considers Holding Centres for Refugees to Prevent Deaths at Sea (4 June 2014):

UN Considers Establishing Refugees’ Centres in North Africa and Middle East (4 June 2014):

Immigration: A Policy Failure At All Levels (3 June 2014):

Europe Faces ‘Colosssal Humanitarian Catastrophe Of Refugees Dying At Sea (2 June 2014):

Voices From Europe’s Deadliest Journey (2 June 2014):

EMHRN Position on Refugees From Syria (June 2014):

Strengthening Refugee Protection and Meeting Challenges: The European Union’s Next Steps on Asylum (June 2014):

Future EU Policy Development on Immigration and Asylum: Understanding the Challenge (June 2014):

Going West: Contemporary Mixed Migration Trends from the Horn of Africa to Libya and Europe (June 2014):

Missing in the Mediterranean (June 2014):

European Agency Reports Surge in Illegal Migration, Fuelling a Debate (30 May 2014):

Understanding the Surge in Migrant Boat Crossings in Europe (29 May 2014):

Migrants Reach Spanish Enclave (28 May 2014):

The EU Lacks a Migration Policy (20 May 2014):

Her Job? To Welcome Boat Migrants Landing at Sicily’s Ports (20 May 2014):

Refugee Protection In Europe: A Proposal For Burden-Sharing (19 May 2014):

Will Europe Let More Refugees And Migrants Die At Sea? (15 May 2014):

Refugees At Sea ‘Is Not An Italian Problem’: Shared EU Responsibility In The Mediterranean Crisis (8 May 2014):

Europe Needs More Solidarity to Cope With the Challenge of Immigration (2 May 2014):

Supporting Immigrant Integration in Europe? Developing the Governance of Diaspora Engagement (May 2014):

Europe’s Migration Crisis (28 April 2014):

Italian Right Calls For End To Migrant Rescue Programme (23 April 2014):

Europe’s African Refugee Crisis: Is The Boat Really Full? (15 April 2014):

EU-Africa Summit: A Eurocentric Approach (10 April 2014):

Greece: Frontier Of Hope And Fear (April 2014):

Mediterranean Flows Into Europe: – Migration and the EU’s Foreign Policy (March 2014):

Europa: The EU and the Refugee Crisis (2016)

Mattia Toaldo, ‘Libya’smigrant-smuggling highway: Lessons for Europe’, European Council on Foreign Relations (2015)

UNODC Model law against the smuggling of migrants (2010)

International Migration – A publication of the UN System CEB for Coordination

UNODC A short introduction on migrant smuggling

The European Council invites the newly established Task Force for the Mediterranean to identify priority actions for a more efficient short term use of European policies and tools to help detecting vessels and illegal entries, contributing to protecting and saving lives at the EU’s external borders

IMO Circular Fal.3/Circ.194

International Organization for Migration, World Migration Report; latest 2013

European Commission Press release Brussels, 4 December 2013 ‘ Lampedusa follow up: concrete actions to prevent loss of life in the Mediterranean and better address migratory and asylum flows’

EUROPEAN COMMISSION MEMO Brussels, 9 October 2013 EU action in the fields of migration and asylum


Immigration, Migration and border security Reports

FRA Migration Key Fundamental Rights Concerns- Quarterly Bulletun 1 (February 2019)

Legatum Institute: Our Latest Report Illustrates why the Refugee Crisis is the Humanitarian Challenge of our Time (20 June 2018)

Homeland Security FY2017 Border Security Metrics Report

FRA 10 Practical Tips to Prevent Border Management Rights Violations


Case Studies








20140910-HRAS_Case_Study_The Push Back Situation in Australia