Organisation Links


2016 Update

Human Rights in the Gulf Region

Useful links on Institutes and Academic Papers:



Slavery Referral texts and other publications

Greenpeace guidance for the seafood industry and government, ‘Slavery and Labour Abuse in the Fishing Sector’ (2014)

UK Government, ‘Explanatory Notes – Modern Slavery Act 2015’

ILO, ‘Final report “ILO expert workshop on Measuring Modern Slavery” ‘ (2015)–en/index.htm

ILO, ‘Forced and compulsory labour in international human rights law’ (2015)–en/index.htm


Human Trafficking International Instruments

ILO, ‘International expert meeting on labour exploitation in the fishing sector in the Atlantic region’ (Background document for the Oslo Conference)–en/index.htm

UN General Assembly, ‘Trafficking in women and girls’, (2014) A/RES/69/149


Referral texts and other publications

USA State Department, ‘Trafficking in Persons Report’ (2015)

UN Security Council, Security Council resolution 2240 (2015) [on migrant smuggling and human trafficking into, through and from the Libyan territory and off the coast of Libya

International Labour Office (ILO), ‘Caught at Sea: Forced Labour and Trafficking in Fisheries’ (2013)—ed_norm/—declaration/documents/publication/wcms_214472.pdf

ILO, ‘GAPfish – A Global action programme against forced labour and trafficking of fishers at sea’ (2015)–en/index.htm


Migrants and Refugees International instruments

UN General Assembly, ‘Oceans and law of the sea: resolution’ (2015)

UN General Assembly, ‘Protection of migrants’, (2014) A/RES/69/167

Security Council, Resolution 2240 (2015)



Referral texts and other publications

Amnesty International, By Hook or by Crook: Australia’s Abuse of Asylum-seekers at Sea,50ffbce51b1,50ffbce51f0,5631eaee8,0,,,.html

OECD, ‘Is this humanitarian migration crisis different?’, (2015)

EU Policy Department, ‘Migrants in the Mediterranean: Protecting human rights’ (2015)

UN Press Release, ‘Adopting Resolution 2240 (2015), Security Council Authorizes Member States to Intercept Vessels off Libyan Coast Suspected of Migrant Smuggling’, (2015)


Migrant Related Articles

Coastal State Obligations in the Context of Refugees at Sea under the European Convention on Human Rights, Ocean and Coastal Law Journal, Vol. 20, Issue 1 (2015), pp. 57-82

Steve Peers, ‘The Refugee Crisis: What should the EU do next?’ (2015)

Meghan Benton, ‘The Changing Face of International Migration: Flows Are Increasingly Fluid, Diverse, and Unconventional’ (2014)



Stefano Piedimonte Bodini, ‘Fighting Maritime Piracy under the European Convention on Human Rights’ (2015)

Andreas Fischer-Lescano, Tillmann Löhr and Timo Tohidipur, ‘Border Controls at Sea: Requirements under International Human Rights and Refugee Law’ (2004)

Douglas Guilfoyle, ‘Counter-Piracy Law Enforcement and Human Rights’, ICLQ vol 59, January 2010 pp 141-169

‘Rethinking Asylum Seeker Detention at Sea: The Power to Detain Asylum Seekers at Sea under the Maritime Powers Act 2013’, University of New South Wales Law Journal, Vol. 38, Issue 2 (2015), pp. 695-737

‘Coastal State Obligations in the Context of Refugees at Sea under the European Convention on Human Rights’, Ocean and Coastal Law Journal, Vol. 20, Issue 1 (2015), pp. 57-82


Tullio Treves,  ‘Human Rights and the Law of the Sea’, 28 Berkeley J. Int’l L. 1 (2010)

Bernard H. Oxman, ‘Human Rights and the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea’, 36 Colum. J. Transnat’l L. 399 (1998)

Coastal State Obligations in the Context of Refugees at Sea under the European Convention on Human Rights,

Ocean and Coastal Law Journal, Vol. 20, Issue 1 (2015), pp. 57-82

United States Congressional Research Service, Freedom of Navigation and Territorial Seas

‘Guidelines on International Protection No. 11’, UNHCR, June 2015


Videos – Informative

IHS Maritime 360
Girija Shettar, Maritime Reporter, Human Rights and the human element HERE

IHS Maritime 360 – David Hammond – HRAS development HERE


Books, essays and documents

Border Management and Human Rights. A study of EU law and the Law of the Sea by Ruth Weinzierl and Urszula Lisson, German Institute of Human Rights, December 2007

‘International Judges and the Protection of Human Rights at Sea’ by Irini Papanicolopulu, International Courts and the Development of International Law. 2013, pp 535-544

‘Hidden Emergency – Migrant deaths in the Mediterranean’, by Judith Sunderland, Human Rights Watch, Human Rights in Europe, August 2012

‘Rescue at sea, stowaways and maritime interception’, UNHCR, 2nd edition, December 2011

Report: Fundamental rights at Europe’s southern sea borders, March 2013
Downloadable at

Anna Petrig

Anna Petrig, Human Rights and Law Enforcement at Sea: Arrest, Detention and Transfers of Piracy Suspects (Martinus Nijhoff Publishers 2014; forthcoming).

Anna Petrig, Transfers of Piracy Suspects – A Crucial Element of the Regional Prosecution Strategy in Light of Human Rights Law, in: Claudia Cinelli and Eva Vázquez Gómez (eds), Regional Strategies to Maritime Security: A Comparative Perspective (Tirant lo Blanch 2014; forthcoming).

Anna Petrig, Arrest, Detention and Transfer of Piracy Suspects: A Critical Appraisal of the German Courier Case Decision, in: Andreone, Gemma / Bevilacqua, Giorgia / Cataldi, Giuseppe / Cinelli, Claudia (eds), Insecurity at Sea: Piracy and Other Risks to Navigation (Gianninin Editore 2013), p. 153-171.

Anna Petrig, Human Rights in Counter-Piracy Operations: No Legal Vacuum but Legal Uncertainty, in: Mejia, Maximo / Kojima, Chie / Sawyer, Mark (eds), Piracy at Sea, (Springer 2013), p. 31-45.

Anna Petrig, The Use of Force and Firearms by Private Maritime Security Companies Against Suspected Pirates, International and Comparative Law Quarterly 62 (2013), 3, p. 667-701.


Slavery at Sea

International instruments

Slavery Referral texts and other publications

Human Trafficking

International Instruments

Referral texts and other publications

Migrants and Refugees

International instruments

Referral texts and other publications

Migrant Related Articles

Alfano: EU Must Take Over Migrant Rescue Programme (18 August 2014):

Spain’s Immigration Problem: Out of Which Comes a Story About Princesa (17 August 2014):

Spain Suspects Morocco Allowed a Brief Flood of Migrants (15 August 2014):

Italy: EU Must Take Over Migrant Boat Rescues (15 August 2014):

By Sea And By Ladder, Africans Seek Entry to Spain (14 Aug 2014):

Italy as a Transit Country for Asylum Seekers (14 August 2014):

Greece Seeks EC Influence to Tackle Surge in Illegal Migrants (14 August 2014):

Record Number of Migrants Arriving in Italy and Spain as Madrid Blames Morocco (13 August 2014):

Frontex Presses On With Aerial Surveillance Projects (12 August 2014):

Migrants Head For Spain In Boats (12 August 2014):

Boat Migrant Arrivals to Italy Up 500 Percent in 2014 (12 August 2014):

Conditions for Asylum Seekers Worsen in Libya (7 August 2014):

Concern Mounts For Refugees and Asylum Seekers in Libya (5 August 2014):

Migration and Public Health in Europe (4 August 2014):

Pressure on Greece’s Border With Turkey Mounts As More Refugees Flee Middle East (2 August 2014):

Eritrean Migrants Risk Detentions and Beatings in Libya for a Life in Europe (1 August 2014):

EU Must ‘Take Urgent Action’ To Ensure Safety Of Refugees (31 July 2014):

People Before Borders (29 July 2014):

The Missed Opportunity of the “Ypres Guidelines” of the European Council Regarding Immigration and Asylum (29 July 2014):

Stopping the Wave of Asylum Seekers Means Fixing Libya (29 July 2014):

Prioritising Border Control Over Human Lives: Violations Of The Rights Of Migrants and Refugees At Sea (28 July 2014):

Better Management of Dead and Missing Migrants Needed In Europe (28 July 2014):

First Privately Funded Refugee Rescue Operation Sets Sale From Malta in August (28 July 2014):

Tracing Dead Migrants in Europe (28 July 2014):

Refugees Must Have Safe Access To Europe (26 July 2014):

Urgent EU Action Needed to End Refugee and Migrant Deaths at Sea, says UNHCR (25 July 2014):

Mediterranean Boat People Numbers Soar This Year (24 July 2014):

UNHCR Calls For Urgent European Action to End Refugee and Migrant Deaths at Sea (24 July 2014):

EU Grapples With Smugglers As People Fleeing Conflict Face Torture (23 July 2014):

EU Solidarity For Rescue-At-Sea and Protection of Refugees and Migrants (22 July 2014):

Boldrini Wants Asylum Requests Allowed in Transit Countries (22 July 2014):

19 Migrants Suffocate On Boat to Italy (19 July 2014):

Bulgaria Under Fire Over Anti-Refugee Border Fence (17 July 2014):

Lives at the Southern Borders (17 July 2014):

Italy Rescues More Than 1700 Boat Migrants In Three Days (16 July 2014):

Lost at Sea (16 July 2014):

Europe’s Migration Emergency (14 July 2014):

No One Deserves To Die At Sea (13 July 2014):

Maiziere: EU Must Help Refugees At The Source (11 July 2014):

Portugal Adopts New Asylum Legislation Transposing EU Asylum Directives (11 July 2014):

Italy In Talks With EU To Share Responsibility For Migrants (9 July 2014):

The Human Cost of the Fortress of Europe (9 July 2014):

EU Migration Policies Put Lives and Rights at Risk (9 July 2014):

Refugees Shouldn’t Be Italy’s Burden Alone (8 July 2014):

Latest Boat Tragedy Off Libya Adds To Rising Death Toll In Mediterranean (8 July 2014):

Growing Refugee Numbers Call For EU Solidarity (8 July 2014):

‘Open Legal Routes to Refugees’: Malmstrom (8 July 2014):

81 Migrants Reported Dead Or Missing On Sea Route To Italy (3 July 2014):

The Effect Of Negative Labelling – Why Are We Still Talking About ‘Migrants’? (1 July 2014):

The Mandate of Frontex is Incompatible With Human Rights (July 2014):

Strengthening EU Border Security Won’t Stop the Deaths of Migrants in the Mediterranean (1 July 2014):

Does EU Have Political Will to Stop Deaths in the Mediterranean Sea? (1 July 2014):

Whose Sea? Mare Nostrum and the Politics of Migration in the Med (30 June 2014):

Refugees Or Migrants? (27 June 2014):

New EU Rules on Maritime Surveillance: Will They Stop the Deaths and Push-Backs in the Mediterranean? (27 June 2014):

Europe and the Refugees (21 June 2014):

Guards Drive Back African Migrants at Morocco-Spain Border (14 June 2014):

EU Must Establish Common ‘Safe’ and ‘Regular’ Migration Paths (13 June 2014):

Italy: Refugees ‘Left Stranded and Starving’ in Rome and Milan (11 June 2014):

Why Figures Matter (10 June 2014):

African Refugees: The Untouchables of Our Time (10 June 2014):

The ‘Left-To-Die Boat’: Actions and Reactions (9 June 2014):

US Amphibious Assault Ship Rescues Illegal Migrants in Mediterranean, Brings More Problems For Beleaguered Malta (8 June 2014):

EU Home Affairs Ministers Urged to Open Legal Channels For Refugees and Migrants (6 June 2014):

Italy’s Forgotten Refugees (5 June 2014):

Holding Centres Will Not Stop Migrants Risking Their Lives Off Europe’s Shores (4 June 2014):

UN Considers Holding Centres for Refugees to Prevent Deaths at Sea (4 June 2014):

UN Considers Establishing Refugees’ Centres in North Africa and Middle East (4 June 2014):

Immigration: A Policy Failure At All Levels (3 June 2014):

Europe Faces ‘Colosssal Humanitarian Catastrophe Of Refugees Dying At Sea (2 June 2014):

Voices From Europe’s Deadliest Journey (2 June 2014):

EMHRN Position on Refugees From Syria (June 2014):

Strengthening Refugee Protection and Meeting Challenges: The European Union’s Next Steps on Asylum (June 2014):

Future EU Policy Development on Immigration and Asylum: Understanding the Challenge (June 2014):

Going West: Contemporary Mixed Migration Trends from the Horn of Africa to Libya and Europe (June 2014):

Missing in the Mediterranean (June 2014):

European Agency Reports Surge in Illegal Migration, Fuelling a Debate (30 May 2014):

Understanding the Surge in Migrant Boat Crossings in Europe (29 May 2014):

Migrants Reach Spanish Enclave (28 May 2014):

The EU Lacks a Migration Policy (20 May 2014):

Her Job? To Welcome Boat Migrants Landing at Sicily’s Ports (20 May 2014):

Refugee Protection In Europe: A Proposal For Burden-Sharing (19 May 2014):

Will Europe Let More Refugees And Migrants Die At Sea? (15 May 2014):

EU Leaders Must Urgently Act to Stop the Increasing Death Toll in the Mediterranean Sea (13 May 2014):

Refugees At Sea ‘Is Not An Italian Problem’: Shared EU Responsibility In The Mediterranean Crisis (8 May 2014):

Europe Needs More Solidarity to Cope With the Challenge of Immigration (2 May 2014):

Supporting Immigrant Integration in Europe? Developing the Governance of Diaspora Engagement (May 2014):

Smuggled Futures: The Dangerous Path of the Migrant from Africa to Europe (May 2014):

Europe’s Migration Crisis (28 April 2014):

Italian Right Calls For End To Migrant Rescue Programme (23 April 2014):

Europe’s African Refugee Crisis: Is The Boat Really Full? (15 April 2014):

EU-Africa Summit: A Eurocentric Approach (10 April 2014):

Greece: Frontier Of Hope And Fear (April 2014):

Mediterranean Flows Into Europe: – Migration and the EU’s Foreign Policy (March 2014):